What are the major schools of thought in psychology? • What are the seven contemporary psychological perspectives? Briefly describe each one.
The major school of thoughts in psychology is as follows
1. Structuralism developed by Wilhelm Wundt and Edward B. Titchener is also associated with it it is based on introspection where an individual personally reflects on his own thoughts and feelings and asked to describe their experiences. They focus to study the human mind by concentrating on its smallest parts and then fit it together to understand it as a whole
2. Functionalism school of thought is influenced by the work of Charles Darwin and William James it focuses on the working of the mind and interaction of the people with their environment because every individual’s approach to the problem differs.
3. Gestalt psychology came into existence in the 20th century in reaction to structuralism and laid the foundation for modern studies of perception because as per this theory whole is greater than its part and to understand something it is important to understand the whole and not in parts.
4. Behaviorism school of thought focuses on the study of behavior instead of attempting the thoughts because consciousness, image, and thoughts cannot be studied scientifically.
5. The psychoanalysis school of thought was developed by Sigmund Freud who views human desire as a manifestation of unfulfilled desires and conflict in the human unconscious mind.
6. Humanism school of thought by Carl Roger and Abraham Maslow says that human is free to do whatever they want to do
7. Cognitive school of thought Jean Piaget and Vygotsky are the pioneers in this school of thought it focuses on cognition that is human understanding the world through thinking, perceiving, memorizing and understanding the problem.
8. Biological Psychology, this school of thought focuses on biology and psychology to understand human behavior.
9. Evolutionary psychology this school of thought was developed by Charles Darwin based on natural selection and psychology.
10. Positive psychology this school of thought focuses on the positive subjective experiences it was developed by Martin Seligman in the late 1990s.
The seven contemporary perspectives are as follows.
1. The Cognitive Perspective.
2. The Evolutionary Perspective.
3. The Psychodynamic Perspective.
4. The Biological Perspective.
5. The Humanistic Perspective.
6. The sociocultural Perspective.
7. The Behavioral Perspective.
1. The cognitive perspective deals with the mind and mental process of thinking, learning, perception, memorizing and problem-solving it accepts the use of the scientific method and rejects introspection.
2. The Evolutionary Perspective is developed by Darwin this based on adaptation, reproduction and the survival of the fittest, as the species developed the less adaptive species started extinction and the fittest survived.
3. The Psychodynamic Perspective was developed by Sigmund Freud that says the human mind stores the childhood experiences in their unconscious mind and affects adulthood. He divided the mental conflict into Id, superego, and ego.
The id represents instincts it comprises two kinds of biological instincts related to life activities such as respiration, eating, and sex that is Eros and the second is Thanatos this is the killer instinct and set of aggressive forces.
The ego represents reality and the superego represents morality. The ego and superego developed from id and they satisfy its demand.
4. Biological perspective this perspective is based on biology and psychology. This is also known as a neuroscience perspective. It based human behavior solely on an individual’s biological process of genetics, hormones, and neurotransmitters. That means human behavior is not due to its environment it is te based on biological factors.
5. The Humanistic Perspective was developed by Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers, it is also based on Maslow’s Hierarchy needs where an individual has to complete the need level before going to the next level to reach self-actualization.
6. The sociocultural Perspective says that human behavior is developed by its interaction with the culture, society, race religion language, ethnicity, and family.
7.The Behavioral Perspective. It is based on stimulus and response, it applies to the behavior that can be observed and recorded.