Suicide is a national risk to all ages both attempted and completed suicides

  • Give An explanation of how you will operationalize the variables with 275-300 words

Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines.

Basically, its a team paper and my job is that bullet point. I honestly dont now what the variable are.

The paper with the said variables is linked. From reading the paper, answer the bullet point in 275-300 words apa format. site sources.Proposed
Study

Alexander
Wenceslao, Briahna Pitts, Shaina Clasberry, Elbert Johnson, and Edith Zamora

January
18, 2016

PSY/
335

Dr.
Nancy Lees

Summary

Suicide
is a national risk to all ages, both attempted and completed suicides. Suicidal
behavior is able to be influenced by many factors that are both internal and
external. While external factors such as the media may pose as an influence,
internal factors such as genetics or situational stress may pose as influences
as well. A new study that the group would create to answer the remaining
unanswered questions would be to incorporate as many individuals as possible
with a mass survey. The individuals that the survey targets would be those who
are currently experiencing suicide related situations or have experienced
suicidal situations in the past. Also, this survey would be inclusive to ask
questions about what the causes are for the individuals to contemplate suicide.
The external factors outside of the targeted group, the survey would be the
media and its effect on suicidal influence, benefactors of the suicidal
community, and those related to the suicidal individuals. To ensure gaining
questions to remaining unanswered questions, the survey can ask questions
concerning the external factors.

Our
group would set out to answer the following research question: “Is it possible
to prevent suicidal influences by taking preemptive measures?” The hypothesis
would be if it is possible to prevent suicidal influences, then the preemptive
measures could be implemented across all demographics—thus decreasing national
suicide rates.

Suicide risk in relation to socioeconomic, demographic,
psychiatric, and familial factors: A national register-based study of all
suicides in denmark

Abstract.
Suicide risk was addressed in relation to the
joint effect of factors regarding family structure, socioeconomics,
demographics, mental illness, and family history of suicide and mental illness,
as well as gender differences in risk factors. Method: Data were drawn from
four national Danish longitudinal registers. Subjects were all 21,169 persons
who committed suicide in 1981-1997 and 423,128 live comparison subjects matched
for age, gender, and calendar time of suicide by using a nested case-control
design. The effect of risk factors was estimated through conditional logistic
regression. The interaction of gender with the risk factors was examined by
using the log likelihood ratio test. The population attributable risk was
calculated. Results: Of the risk factors examined in the study, a history of
hospitalization for psychiatric disorder was associated with the highest odds
ratio and the highest attributable risk for suicide. Cohabiting or single
marital status, unemployment, low income, retirement, disability,
sickness-related absence from work, and a family history of suicide and/or
psychiatric disorders were also significant risk factors for suicide. Moreover,
these factors had different effects in male and female subjects. A psychiatric
disorder was more likely to increase suicide risk in female than in male
subjects. Being single was associated with higher suicide risk in male
subjects, and having a young child with lower suicide risk in female subjects.
Unemployment and low income had stronger effects on suicide in male subjects.
Living in an urban area was associated with higher suicide risk in female
subjects and a lower risk in male subjects. A family history of suicide raised
suicide risk slightly more in female than in male subjects. Conclusions: Suicide
risk is strongly associated with mental illness, unemployment, low income,
marital status, and family history of suicide. The effect of most risk factors
differs significantly by gender (Qin, Agerbo, & Mortensen, 2003)

What was the author’s goal?The objective
for this study was the suicide risk was addressed in relation to the joint
effect of factors regarding family structure, socioeconomics, demographics,
mental illness, and family history of suicide and mental illness, as well as
gender differences in risk factors (Quin, Agerbo & Mortensen, 2003, Pg.
765).

What questions remain unanswered?Conclusions:
Suicide risk is strongly associated with mental illness, unemployment, low
income, marital status, and family history of suicide. The effect of most risk
factors differs significantly by gender (Quin, Agerbo & Mortensen, 2003,
Pg. 765). In addition, a question that is remain unanswered is if age is also
plays a factor as a suicide risk.

What was the author’s research question?What
is the suicide risk in relation to socioeconomic, demographic, psychiatric, and
familial factors?

What was the author’s hypothesis? Suicide risk to be connected to the following
factors: family structure, socioeconomics, demographics, mental illness, family
history of suicide, mental illness, and gender.

How to Adjust Media Recommendations on Reporting Suicidal Behavior to New Media Developments

Abstract.
The purpose of this study is toestablish
best practice and evidence-based approach to reduce suicidality by
community-based multilevel interventions.
193 member states of the United Nations (UN) were used as sample of
countries to gather information on national suicide prevention programs, media
recommendations, and press codes.
Experts assessed the existing national programs. These experts rated the inclusion of
variables in each media recommendation and press code. For each variable, the percentages of
inclusion in the media recommendations or press codes were calculated.

What was the author’s goal?The
author’s goal is to present accurate and up to date information concerning the
effects of media on suicidal behaviors.

What questions remain unanswered?Are all relevant factors for
preventing imitation included in the existing media recommendations? Do they consider emergent media?

What was the author’s research question?The author’s question was how many
of the of the sample of United Nation countries has a national suicide prevention
program, media recommendations to assist suicide prevention and which
organization has prepared them.

What was the author’s hypothesis?The hypothesis states that media
recommendations and press codes of ethics vary considerably in the included preventive
factors and that there is a need for optimization, given the current state of
knowledge about responsible media reporting.

Surrogate Endpoints in Suicide Research

Abstract.

Surrogate
endpoints frequently substitute for rare outcomes in research.

The ability to learn about completed suicides by
investigating more readily available

and proximate outcomes, such as suicide attempts, has
obvious appeal. However,

concerns with surrogates from the statistical science
perspective exist, and

mounting evidence from psychometric, neurochemical,
genetic, and neuroimaging

studies suggests that surrogates may be particularly
problematic in suicide

research. The need for greater phenotypic refinement of
suicide-related behaviors,

development of and adherence to a shared suicide
nomenclature, and conservative

interpretation of investigational results that are
limited to the precise population

and
suicide-related behavior under examination are discussed.

What was the author’s goal?The author’s goal was to determine if a surrogate
endpoint could work for suicide attempt research. Even though there are many
critics that do not like that idea of a surrogate endpoint for other scientific
studies.

What questions remain
unanswered?
 Why is
suicide attempts taxing for caregivers and health care systems?Can
suicide be heritable? Are there different subgroups for suicide?

What was the author’s research question?The
author’s research question was, is it possible to have a surrogate endpoint for
suicide? Another question that came about was, are suicide attempts similar to
completed suicide?

What was the author’s hypothesis?
Surrogate in suicide research needs a lot of conservative investigation results
and it only limits to a certain population with behavioral study (The American
Association of Suicidology, 2010).

Causes of
suicide in middle-aged men in prefectures in japan during the recent spike in
suicides

Abstract.The article speaks of the situation
of rising suicide rates in Japan. In Japan, there is a surge of suicides
reported from the National Police Agency that focuses on the demographic of
middle-aged men. The article states that the main reason is the “economic
slump” (Inoue, Fukunaga, Okazaki, Fujita, Abe, &
Ono, 2011). The article lists six prefectures and the reasons for why the
middle aged men in those prefectures committed suicide.

What was the author’s
goal?
The author’s goal was to address the issue of rising suicide rates
in middle-aged men in prefectures in Japan.

What questions remain
unanswered?

What other demographics have a similar surge in suicide rates in
comparison to middle-aged men?

What was the author’s
the research question?

Why are middle-aged men, in Japan, more prone suicide?

What was the author’s hypothesis?

If “economic difficulties” are common amongst middle-aged
men in those prefectures, then the relevant organizations in Japan should be
able to help decrease suicides (Inoue, Fukunaga, Okazaki,
Fujita, Abe, & Ono, 2011).

References

Inoue, K., Fukunaga, T., Okazaki Y., Fujita, Y., Abe, S.,
& Ono, Y. (2011). Causes of suicide in middle-aged men in prefectures in
Japan during the recent spike in suicides. West
Indian Medical Journal,
 59(3).
Retrieved from http://web.a.ebscohost.com.contentproxy.phoenix.edu/ehost/detail/detail?sid=629023a3-41e9-4715-a4e0-131f8986099b%40sessionmgr4003&vid=0&hid=4214&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=mdc&AN=21294298

Qin, P., Agerbo, E.,
& Mortensen, P. B. (2003). Suicide risk in relation to

socioeconomic,
demographic, psychiatric, and familial factors: A national register-based study
of all suicides in denmark, 1981-1997. The American Journal of Psychiatry,
160
(4), 765-72. Retrieved from
http://search.proquest.com/docview/220467861?accountid=458

Maloney, J., B. Pfuhlmann, E. Arensman, C. Coffey, R.
Gusmão, V. Poštuvan, and A. Schmidtke, et al. 2014. “How to Adjust Media
Recommendations on Reporting Suicidal Behavior
to New Media Developments.” Archives
Of Suicide Research 18, no. 2: 156 169.
Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost (accessed January 17, 2016).

Hal
S. Wortzel, MD, Peter M. Gutierrez, PhD, Beeta Y. Homaifar, PhD,

Ryan
E. Breshears, PhD, and Jeri E. Harwood, PhD. (2010). Surrogate Endpoints in
Suicide Research. The Amercan Associaton of Suicidology. Retrieved from
http://search.proquest.com.contentproxy.phoenix.edu/docview/848859259?pq-origsite=summon&accountid=458


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