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Research plays an essential role in health assessment and planning. What is formative research? How can formative research help the health advocate select and use a theory to strategize a communications campaign for health promotion?

Textbook Information

Title:Essentials of Health Behavior: Social and Behavioral Theory in Public Health, Second Edition

Author:Edberg, M.

ISBN:978-1-284-10766-1

Publisher:Jones and Bartlett

THIS IS THE ACTUAL PAPER: PLEASE FOLLOWER EVERY INSTRUCTION BELOW

This Assignment will include your findings from Units 4 & 6. Your Assignment should include:

1. A title page with the title of your project, your name, name of this course, and Kaplan University. Also a line with “date submitted”

2. Titles for each section (example: U.S. Census data on county in the state of ).

3. Include questions 1-5 from Assignment 4.

4. The health assessment you designed in Assignment 6.

5. Add the information you have discovered to this point in other projects and compile the information about one health concern of relevance in your community (example: youth violence).

6. Using the health concern of your choice (the same one throughout this project) describe how you will gather data for your health assessment (interview, focus groups, or whatever methods you feel are appropriate).

7. Using the US Census information on your community, complete the health assessment information. You may need to fill in certain information that you may not have on hand (such as that you might gather through interviews or focus groups).

8. After you have completed the health assessment section, evaluate your information. (Consult Chapter 13 in your book and look up a reliable example of a health promotion evaluation on the Internet.) Use the link below for a guidepost for your evaluation. A good informational website to help with evaluation is;.cdc.gov/workplacehealthpromotion/evaluation/index.html”>http://www.cdc.gov/workplacehealthpromotion/evaluation/index.html

9. In Doc Sharing and below you will find worksheets to help you think about who your health evaluation will affect. This was taken from .cdc.gov/getsmart/programplanner/Step1.pdf”>http://www.cdc.gov/getsmart/programplanner/Step1.pdf Complete and add this to your assignment. This portion should include a plan of action

10. A reference page with your academic sources of information. You should use your textbook as one resource, and include at least 4 other academic sources. How exactly you compile the material is up to you, but remember to give details and to submit material that is organized in thought, has a professional look, in a logical order, and is thorough. Check over your work before submitting to assure clarity, order, and accuracy. Grammar, spelling, and punctuation will also be graded. As long as you include the areas above, you may order the information as you wish as long as it flows and is rational. Each component of the assignment should be organized in thought, have a professional look, in a logical order, and be thorough. Format your paper consistent with APA 6th guidelines.

Arthritis
– The Leading Cause of Disabilities

Unit
6 – HA560

April 12, 2016

The
Ultimate Desired Result

The Los Angeles County main goal as
a community is to have economic and social development. This will only be
achieved through elimination of major health issues in the county such as
arthritis. The disease is not only costly but also disables the most energetic
workforce in the county. This has proven to be a major setback in terms of
development in the county. The community expects reduction of homelessness due
to luck of capital to cater for house mortgages in the county. The community
also expects the county to direct its funds towards cultural and recreational
opportunities instead of allocating a lot of budget towards the health sector.

Identifying the Issue

Arthritis is currently the major
cause of disability in the United States, affecting over 43 million of the U.S.
adults. The estimated total cost associated directly with Arthritis is said to
be $51 billion for medical cover and $35 billion incurred indirectly such as
lost productivity. According to a survey conducted by the Los Angeles County
Health Survey (LACHS), over 1.3 million adults are diagnosed with arthritis
every year. The cases of arthritis were also very high in woman than men. The
prevalence was lowest among Asians at 12%, Latinos (19%), whites (21%) and
African Americans (29%). As the population increases, the number of people with
arthritis as well as the expected costs are expected to increase (Trevor, 2015).

Arthritis poses a great burden in
the society not just because of its large economic impact and high prevalence,
but also because of the limitations and the pain it causes in both social and
physical functioning. Nationally, over 16 million people have reported being limited
in their daily functioning due to the illness. Almost a third of the working
arthritis adults have reported some limitations in their work. Although the
prevalence of the disease in Los Angeles (20%) is similar to the national one
(21%), the proportion of adults who reported discomfort in LA County was at 50%
high compared to the 38% in the national level. The rate of activity limitation
differed by race where 64% African Americans reported arthritis related
limitations in their activities, compared to Asians at 43%, Whites 46% and
Latinos at 48% (Trevor,
2015).

Arthritic people have also been
reported to have a worse quality of life compared to people that do not have
the illness. Report from a survey conducted in 2005 showed that adults who had
arthritis had unhealthy days, and even worse where their days were limited by
mental or physical health compared to adults who did not have arthritis.
Arthritic adults were also likely to see their health as getting worse compared
to those that did not have arthritis, where 40% reported that their health was
poor or fair compared to 16% of adults who never had arthritis and just 16%
without the disease. The self-perceived health status varied by ethnicity and
race where African Americans were more likely to say their health was poor
compared to other races such as Whites (Trevor, 2015).

Arthritis comes in many forms; most
of the diseases affect the tissues that surround joints or the joints
themselves. The most common forms of arthritis include, gout, osteoarthritis,
fibromyalgia and rheumatoid. The most dangerous forms of it such as systemic
lupus erythematosus can affect several organs. Although arthritis prevalence
increases with age, the disease affects people of all ages including children.
In addition to non-changeable risks factors like gender, age and genetics, an
individual’s risk of getting arthritis increases with being overweight. The
risk has also been said to increase in people that have joint infection or
injury and in some cases being involved in tasks that involve repetitive
motions that stress the joints. Being overweight is also associated with both
progression and development of arthritis and particularly osteoarthritis. A
research conducted by LACHS indicated that arthritis increased with the body
mass index, from 12% among the underweight to 25% among the obese people.

Implementation

Many people do not understand that
arthritis is not part of aging and that it can be eliminated. Avoiding joint
injuries, maintaining a healthy weight, early treatment or prevention of
infectious diseases can actually prevent the development of the illness. Once arthritis
has occurred, early treatment and diagnosis for preventing the disabilities
that are usually associated with the illness and reducing the need to replace
the joints is important. Self management activities like involving yourself in
regular exercises and maintaining healthy weights are important in the
prevention of arthritis progression. This has previously indicated positive
results such as improved function, delay disability and a decrease in pain. All
these interventions can help arthritic people to maintain a high quality and
independent life but are rarely utilized (Trevor, 2015).

The Arthritis Foundation offers a
6-week self help course that educates people on how they can manage their
arthritis. People who managed to complete the course are found to be in lesser
pain, fewer visit to the doctors and improved function. Another important thing
that arthritic people can take is to involve themselves in frequent activities.
Both aerobic and strength training have been found to be very significant to
people suffering from the illness, where by pain has been found to improve
physical functioning and delay disabilities. Elderly adults with arthritis and have
not been doing exercises were found to experience more decline as opposed to
those who did. In addition to this, engaging in physical activities also helps
to prevent obesity and also lowers the chances of developing other medical
conditions that are associated with inactivity such as diabetes and heart
diseases (Henry,
2010).

There are several self management
habits that can help the patient to manage the disease successfully. First,
there is a need to be more organized in terms of keeping track of pain levels,
symptoms, possible side effects and medications. To manage the pain as well as
fatigue, medication can always be used together with a non-medical pain
management. The patient is also advised to balance the amount of activity with
some rest. As much as being active is advised, rest is important especially
when the disease is active.

As we are all aware, the origin of most of
these illnesses is diet, a healthy diet is key towards achieving a healthy
weight and regulation of inflammation through consumption of foods that have high
antioxidants and anti-inflammatory properties. Lack of sleep is said to
aggravate arthritis fatigue and pain, there are various measures that can be
put into place to ensure that you get some sleep and stay asleep such as
avoiding caffeine and strenuous exercises in the evenings. To protect your
joints, it is advisable to use the strongest and larger joints as levels
whenever you are opening doors, using a number of joints to spread the weight
of an object (Henry,
2010).

To
overcome some of the arthritis therapies, doctors have suggested a number of
physical therapies to help in overcoming the symptoms. They include warm water
therapy – doing exercises in a pool of warm water. Basically, less weight is
put on the joints and muscles because the weight is supported by the water. It
is not easy to live with arthritis and carrying out a few tasks can be
difficult and painful. However, there
are several things that can be done with the doctor to ensure a better quality
life.

Whether your arthritis is
inflammatory or non-inflammatory or even the painful gout, there are various
forms of recommendations and medications to ensure that your joints never
become much damaged (Elias, 2011). When it comes to
treating arthritis, the focus is always on the reduction of the pain,
maintaining of quality life and improvement of functioning. According to the
American College of Rheumatology, the treatment for arthritis includes
medications, splits or joint assistive aids; non-pharmacological therapies;
weight loss; physical or occupational therapy; patient education and support
and surgery.

When it comes to medication,
non-inflammatory types of arthritis like osteoarthritis are normally treated
with physical activities, pain mediations, self-management education and weight
loss in cases where the individual is overweight. The inflammatory types of
arthritis such as RA can also be treated with these methods together with
anti-inflammatory medications, anti-rheumatic drugs and a new class of drugs
known as biologics. The medications used in treating arthritis depend on the
type of arthritis (Elias,
2011).

Arthritis has many negative impacts
on human life and sexuality is one of them. Sexuality is associated with our
self-identity and quality of life (Henry, 2010). And yet living in
stiffness, pain, limited movement, fatigue and other issues associated with
arthritis can reduce our sexual enjoyment and expression. With such an effect
and others like financial constraints, it is evident that arthritis is a major
set back in the society. The methods used in the treatment of the illness can
be very helpful planning for community health interventions. On the other hand,
data such as the number of people suffering from arthritis and amount of money
used in medication can be used in public policy planning.

Assumptions
made from the Health Assessment

There were several assumptions that
were made during the preparation of this health assessment. One of the
assumptions made is that the arthritis issue was caused by the community
behavior in general. Another assumption is that the disease is also caused by
their lifestyles. There are some lifestyles that put people at various health
risks. One example of health risk that has been assumed to be the cause of the
illness is luck of exercises, too much stress and a diet full of saturated fats
and high calories.

Important
Planning Interventions Information

In the assessment above, there are
several implementation steps that could be useful for community planning
interventions. The information on prevention could be very useful for the
community planning. The community could be urged to maintain a good weight,
avoid joint injuries and prevention of infectious diseases that could lead to
development of the illness. The community could therefore be urged to engage regular
exercises.

Important
Information for Public Policy Planning

Public policy is important for the
disease prevention in general. In the first phase of the assessment, several
statistical data were used to indicate the depth of the issue. For instance,
the high costs of medication used in the process of preventing the illness
could be used in budgetary allocation to the health sector. The prevalence of
the illness could also be used in the process of preventing the illness in the
various quarters.

Reference
List

Trevor, T., 2015, Arthritis:
Causes, Symptoms and Treatments,
 Bust Business Books, New York

Henry, C.A., 2010, (Ed.). Maintaining
a good Health for a good life,
Business Expert Press, LLC, New York

Elias, K., 2011, Healthcare:
Ways of Curbing Arthritis
, John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken, NJ