Historical events that have impacted emergency management

Need two responses of 100-200 words for the below.

1. There have been many historical events that have impacted emergency management; and helped it to evolve over time. Emergency management began to develop in the 1800’s with the assistance given to the state of New Hampshire for a devastating fire. The Cold war in the 50’s brought the threat of nuclear war, which established the Office of Defense Mobilization. In the 1960’s there were numerous natural disasters;Hebgenearthquake, Hurricane Betsy, San Fernando earthquake and Hurricane Camille, to name a few. Changes were made in the DOD structure and producers, including funding and insurance. In the 1970’s a radioactive leak required the evacuation of thousands of people. In the 1980’s the government became concerned with treats from the Soviet Union, forcing the issue of civil defense and nuclear attack planning(Bullock,Haddow, & Coppola, 2013). All of these events built on what FEMA has become; the foundation of emergency management. Bombings, such as,MurradFederal building (1995) and the USS Cole (2000) led to new operations and growth in emergency management; the Navy introduced theAnti-Terrorism and Force Protection Warfare center. The two largest historical impacts that changed and tested the United States emergency management, was that of the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon and the natural disaster of Hurricane Katrina(2013).

When considering terrorist threats the one that would have the largest impact on emergency management’s policy and practices are those attacks that directly affect the emergency management resources. Hospitals, police stations, fire stations and operation centers. These facilities are particularly vulnerable because they may lack security protection and have outdated communications. These emergency sources do not have a lot of funding, therefore equipment maybe be old (Carafano, 2008). There may be a lack of mobile command posts or back up options also. When a terrorist attack occurs, the first responder are the first to response; should the emergency facilities be attacked either as the main target or by a “secondary device” the first responders can be further confused in coordinating responses or unable to respond at all. Should a large attack occur and multiply sites are attacked the risk is even greater that a long delay in help will occur. The attacks may not only be a bombings or chemical one, but attacks on emergency information systems can bring huge devastation. If a cyber attack occurs, computer systems and dispatch may be greatly delayed or even lost completely. Electronic jamming could interrupt emergency frequencies, delay emergency warnings and disrupt monitoring systems and detection; attack of critical infrastructure (2008). A delay in emergency service can impact the situation even more causing chaos and confusion. Any procedure that is put into place maybe considered useless if the emergency management team are no longer capable to respond.

In the situation of a terrorists attack the local, state, federal and private sectors would all be affected. On a local level, an attack directly to emergency personal, facilities and hospitals would devastate a town or city. Government officials and any other responders would need to jump into action. A response plan would need to be put into place, new locations for the injured would need to be set up and help from the community may be called upon depending on the level of damage and facilities attacked. The state would also need to response as they overlap the local leadership. Other resources that are needed would be brought in; military assistance, community resources (Homeland security affairs, 2010). The state would handle the planning and responses and would decide the course of action. The state would also be in communication to federal officials. On a federal level, the DOD, FEMA and Homeland Security would all be on alert of another attack, reevaluation of mistakes would be asset (2010). Federal funding and support would be given depending on the level of the attack.

The shift from becoming “reactive” to “proactive” is a God honoring action. God has gifted His children with the ability to learn and become knowledgeable (Proverbs 2:6). The Bible teaches that it is good to be proactive, “Remember this: Whoever sows sparingly will also reap sparingly, and whoever sows generously will also reap generously” ( 2 Corinthians 9:6, NIV). If our country, state and local departments are proactive and make plans and procedures for the possibility of an attack; then should an event or attack take place, there will be faster results, less panic and hopefully less loss of life. The Bible is our guide and direction. Even in times of loss and disasters there is comfort in knowing God is good and that through Him and His word happiness and joy will follow. Through proactive planning and preparation, even in the middle of a terrorist attack; blessing can be seen in being proactive. Reactive behavior will only bring further panic and chaos. As Principle 9 supports the guidance and joy that God and the Bible bring. “To protect human rights, God has revealed a code of divine law. “The doctrines thus delivered we call the revealed or divine law, and they are to be found only in the Holy Scriptures. These precepts, when revealed, are found by comparison to be really a part of the original law of nature, as they tend in all their consequences to man’s felicity.”

2.

Emergency management actually started, nationally, by FDR. He used the government as a way to stimulate the economy in the 1930’s. Disaster loans were approved and the Tennessee Valley Authority was created to make water-perpetuated electricity and also help to reduce flooding in the area. In 1934, the Flood Control Act was passed to give the Army Corps of Engineers authority to build flood control projects. Even though this plan was not totally effective, it did prove that humans could control nature and promoted population growth along the rivers. (Historical Context)

According to the Strategic Foresight Initiative, the biggest terrorist threat that would impact the Emergency Management policy is that their tactics continuously shift to exploit our vulnerabilities. What’s more, the terrorist tactics continuously avoid any kind of counterintelligence. Suicide shooters, roadside bombs, and the like are less castraphobic than nuclear or chemical weapons, but distinguish themselves because they have a higher degree of success. Terrorist will still look for oportunities to have mass casualties, like planes and subways, but the bigger the desired effect, the easier it will be to detect. (Strategic Foresight)

Because of this, the federal government mudt increase intel opportunities and secure our borders. Also, although unpopular, Homeland Security must be more stringent in it’s domestic efforts to uncover terrorists on our mainland. I, for one, do not mind if they listen to my conversations if it means they stop an attack that may threaten my family. state and local authorities must provide strenuous training for recognizing signs of terroristic actions. As for the private sector, we must understand that every Muslim is a terrorist and that any suspicious activity by anyone should be reported to the proper authorities


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