1. Explain the distinction between the terms “democracy” and “republic.” What kind of system did the Framers of the Constitution establish? How does the legislative branch (Congress) reflect this type of system?

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2. Explain the systems of separation of powers and checks and balances. How do these systems created by the Constitution limit the government’s power?

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3. The Constitution established in Article II an Executive Branch headed by the President. No such office had existed under the Articles of Confederation. Why did some Americans fear such an office and why did others believe it was absolutely necessary for the success of the nation?

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4. The Framers came to look upon federalism as part of the Constitution’s system of checks and balances. What is meant by this statement? What are some historical or present day examples of how federalism operates in the U.S. to check and balance governmental power?

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5. What is meant by the “New Federalism” or “Devolution?” Do you think these concepts accurately describe the relationship between the national and state governments in recent years.. Discuss a past example of the New Federalism. Consider also the current relationship between different levels of government as you understand it. Do you think the Bush Administration delegated more power to the states or did power become more centralized during his eight years in office? What about the Obama Administration?